fasterdata.es.netfasterdata.es.netESnet Network Performance Knowledge Base

Network Requirements and Expectations

Expected Rates to Transfer Data

As a first step in improving your network performance, it is critical to have a baseline understanding of what speed you should expect from your network connection under ideal conditions.

The following shows how long it takes to transfer 1 Terabyte of data across various speed networks:

10 Mbps network 300 hrs (12.5 days)
100 Mbps network 30 hrs
1 Gbps network 3 hrs
10 Gbps network 20 minutes



Throughput required to move Y bytes in X time

Bits per second throughput

Data set size
10PB   1,333.33 Tbps 266.67 Tbps 66.67 Tbps 22.22 Tbps
1PB   133.33 Tbps 26.67 Tbps 6.67 Tbps 2.22 Tbps
100TB   13.33 Tbps 2.67 Tbps 666.67 Gbps 222.22 Gbps
10TB   1.33 Tbps 266.67 Gbps 66.67 Gbps 22.22 Gbps
1TB   133.33 Gbps 26.67 Gbps 6.67 Gbps 2.22 Gbps
100GB   13.33 Gbps 2.67 Gbps 666.67 Mbps 222.22 Mbps
10GB   1.33 Gbps 266.67 Mbps 66.67 Mbps 22.22 Mbps
1GB   133.33 Mbps 26.67 Mbps 6.67 Mbps 2.22 Mbps
100MB   13.33 Mbps 2.67 Mbps 0.67 Mbps 0.22 Mbps
    1 Minute 5 Minutes 20 Minutes 1 Hour
Time to transfer



Data set size
1XB   277.78 Tbps 92.59 Tbps 13.23 Tbps 3.09 Tbps
100PB   27.78 Tbps 9.26 Tbps 1.32 Tbps 308.64 Gbps
10PB   2.78 Tbps 925.93 Gbps 132.28 Gbps 30.86 Gbps
1PB   277.78 Gbps 92.59 Gbps 13.23 Gbps 3.09 Gbps
100TB   27.78 Gbps 9.26 Gbps 1.32 Gbps 308.64 Mbps
10TB   2.78 Gbps 925.93 Mbps 132.28 Mbps 30.86 Mbps
1TB   277.78 Mbps 92.59 Mbps 13.23 Mbps 3.09 Mbps
100GB   27.78 Mbps 9.26 Mbps 1.32 Mbps 0.31 Mbps
10GB   2.78 Mbps 0.93 Mbps 0.13 Mbps 0.03 Mbps
    8 Hours 24 Hours 7 Days 30 Days
Time to transfer



Throughput required to move Y bytes in X time

Bytes per second throughput

Data set size
10PB   166.67 TB/sec 33.33 TB/sec 8.33 TB/sec 2.78 TB/sec
1PB   16.67 TB/sec 3.33 TB/sec 833.33 GB/sec 277.78 GB/sec
100TB   1.67 TB/sec 333.33 GB/sec 83.33 GB/sec 27.78 GB/sec
10TB   166.67 GB/sec 33.33 GB/sec 8.33 GB/sec 2.78 GB/sec
1TB   16.67 GB/sec 3.33 GB/sec 833.33 MB/sec 277.78 MB/sec
100GB   1.67 GB/sec 333.33 MB/sec 83.33 MB/sec 27.78 MB/sec
10GB   166.67 MB/sec 33.33 MB/sec 8.33 MB/sec 2.78 MB/sec
1GB   16.67 MB/sec 3.33 MB/sec 0.83 MB/sec 0.28 MB/sec
100MB   1.67 MB/sec 0.33 MB/sec 0.08 MB/sec 0.03 MB/sec
    1 Minute 5 Minutes 20 Minutes 1 Hour
Time to transfer



Data set size
1XB   34.72 TB/sec 11.57 TB/sec 1.65 TB/sec 385.80 GB/sec
100PB   3.47 TB/sec 1.16 TB/sec 165.34 GB/sec 38.58 GB/sec
10PB   347.22 GB/sec 115.74 GB/sec 16.53 GB/sec 3.86 GB/sec
1PB   34.72 GB/sec 11.57 GB/sec 1.65 GB/sec 385.80 MB/sec
100TB   3.47 GB/sec 1.16 GB/sec 165.34 MB/sec 38.58 MB/sec
10TB   347.22 MB/sec 115.74 MB/sec 16.53 MB/sec 3.86 MB/sec
1TB   34.72 MB/sec 11.57 MB/sec 1.65 MB/sec 0.39 MB/sec
100GB   3.47 MB/sec 1.16 MB/sec 0.17 MB/sec 0.04 MB/sec
10GB   0.35 MB/sec 0.12 MB/sec 0.02 MB/sec 0.00 MB/sec
    8 Hours 24 Hours 7 Days 30 Days
Time to transfer



Legend:
Requires less than 100Mbps throughput
Requires between 100Mbps and 10Gbps throughput
Requires between 10Gbps and 100Gbps throughput
Requires more than 100Gbps throughput
Note: Kilo, Mega, etc. are in SI units. E.g. 1KB is 1000 bytes, not 1024 bytes



Click to view charts in PDF | right-click for download (43 KB).

Recommended Approach

Note that on a high-speed network it takes less time to transfer 1 Terabyte of data than one might expect. It is usually sub-optimal to try and get 900 megabits per second of throughput on a 1 gigabit per second network path in order to move one or two terabytes of data per day. The disk subsystem can also be a bottleneck - simple storage systems often have trouble filling a 1 gigabit per second pipe.

In general it is not a good idea to try to completely saturate the network, as you will likely end up causing problems for both yourself and others trying to use the same link. A good rule of thumb is that for periodic transfers it should be straightforward to get throughput equivalent to 1/4 to 1/3 of a shared path that has nominal background load.

For example, if you know your receiving host is connected to 1 Gbps Ethernet, then a target of speed of 150-200 Mbps is reasonable. You can adjust the number of parallel streams (as described on the tools page) that you are using to achieve this. If there is a T3 (45 Mbps) link in the middle of your path, then your target speed should be no more than 10 Mbps. However most DOE labs and large universities are connected at speeds of at least 1 Gbps, and most LANs are at least 100 Mbps, so if you don't get at least 20 Mbps, there may be a problem that needs to be addressed.